X-ray fluorescence (XRF) is a non-destructive analytical method used to determine elemental concentrations in various materials. XRF works by striking a sample with an x-ray beam from an x-ray tube, causing characteristic x-rays to fluoresce from each element in the sample. A detector measures the energy and intensity (number of x-rays per second at a specific energy) of each X-ray, which is transformed into an elemental concentration using either a non-standard technique such as fundamental parameters or user-generated calibration curves. The presence of an element is identified by the element’s characteristic X-ray emission wavelength or energy. The amount of an element present is quantified by measuring the intensity of that element’s characteristic X-ray emission.